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Veröffentlicht unter Chinesische Philosophie | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

The Mystical City of God Vol. 4: The Coronation

The Mystical City of God Vol. 4: The Coronation – Mary of Agreda

At thirty-five Mary Agreda began her Mystical City of God, which was the fruit of her daily meditations and rapt states of contemplation. When this work appeared it was hailed with almost unanimous applause by the bishops of Spain. The Spanish Inquisition, always rigid in its censorship, regarded it as almost, if not wholly, of divine revelation. The Sorbonne at Paris held thirty-two stances, in which five hundred and fifty doctors discussed its merits, but finally condemned it with true national hostility to Spain. At Rome it was indeed placed on the Index, but was removed shortly after by command of the pope himself, some say at the solicitation of the King of Spain. Though no formal approbation has ever been given to the work, Pope Alexander VIII. authorized its circulation, and Clement IX. forbade its being placed on the Index. Its discussion, however, has delayed the process for the canonization of its author, though no one ever doubted her sincerity, her earnest convictions, and the saintliness of her character. In it she displays a mind thoroughly imbued with the religious spirit, and, though without education, strictly speaking, shows a knowledge of Scripture, a depth of theological learning, and a correctness of scholastic terms that are truly surprising. The style is dignified, and yet easy; and some of her descriptions have a certain grandeur, as in the Passion, where Satan and his angels are represented as following Christ to Mount Calvary bound in chains, forced to become witnesses of his sufferings and death, and smitten to the ground at the moment of the Consummatum est. This is volume four out of four.

The Mystical City of God Vol. 4: The Coronation

The Mystical City of God Vol. 4: The Coronation

Format: Paperback.

The Mystical City of God Vol. 4: The Coronation.

ISBN: 9783849672935.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

The monastic life of Mary of Agreda (from wikipedia.com)

When Mary of Jesus was twelve, she made the decision to enter a monastery, having decided upon that of the Discalced Carmelite nuns in Tarazona. As her parents prepared to accompany her there, Catalina de Arana had a vision that she was to turn the family home into a monastery in which both she and her daughters were to commit their lives as nuns. While the young María was agreeable to this arrangement, her father refused to go along with it. In this he was supported by his brother, Medel, as well as by their neighbors, who all considered this arrangement a violation of their marriage vows. His resistance lasted for three years, until in 1618, then considered an older man in his early fifties, he (and later his brother) entered the Franciscan Friary of San Antonio in Nalda as a lay brother. Her brothers, who had already become friars, continued their studies toward the Catholic priesthood in Burgos. Mary of Jesus later recalled that this period had been one of severe trial for her spiritual life and had led to a certain sense of vanity.

Catalina and her daughters then converted their family home into the Monastery of the Immaculate Conception, to be a part of the Order of the Immaculate Conception. The choice of this Order was a part of the huge devotion to the Immaculate Conception of Mary which marked Spanish spirituality of that period. They began this endeavor as part of the Discalced—or reformed—branch of the Order. Unfortunately, there were no monasteries of this branch in the region, so three nuns of the original Calced branch were brought from their monastery in Burgos to serve as the abbess of the community and to train them in the life of the Order. Mary of Jesus later judged that this had given a bad start to the enterprise, as these nuns were to teach them a way of life they had neither known nor practiced. Mary of Jesus was 16 when she and her mother and sister took the religious habit of the Order and she was given the religious name by which she is now known. She felt, though, that she had to make up for her years of laxity during the period of contention between her parents and the delay in the foundation of the monastery resulting from it.

As other women soon joined the community, the monastery was rebuilt (and completed in 1633), although when reconstruction began the community’s coffers contained 24 reales(approximately 2.5 Spanish dollars at the time), supplemented by a donation of 100 reales from devotees and many other gifts and hours of voluntary labor. Once she had made her religious profession in 1620, Mary of Jesus began to experience a long period of illness and temptations. After her mother’s death, Mary of Jesus, then aged 25, was appointed the Superior locum tenens, after which her fellow nuns elected her as their abbess. Though rules required the abbess to be changed every three years, Mary remained effectively in charge of the monastery until her death, except for a three-year sabbatical in her fifties.

Throughout her life, Mary of Jesus was inclined to the „internal prayer“ or „quiet prayer“. Like her countrywoman Teresa of Avila a generation earlier, these prayerful experiences led to religious ecstasies, including reported accounts of levitation. As this form of prayer was practiced frequently among women, the Inquisition kept a watchful eye on those who advocated the practice.

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter Mariology, The Sacred Books (English) | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

The Mystical City of God Vol. 3: The Transfixion

The Mystical City of God Vol. 3: The Transfixion – Mary of Agreda

At thirty-five Mary Agreda began her Mystical City of God, which was the fruit of her daily meditations and rapt states of contemplation. When this work appeared it was hailed with almost unanimous applause by the bishops of Spain. The Spanish Inquisition, always rigid in its censorship, regarded it as almost, if not wholly, of divine revelation. The Sorbonne at Paris held thirty-two stances, in which five hundred and fifty doctors discussed its merits, but finally condemned it with true national hostility to Spain. At Rome it was indeed placed on the Index, but was removed shortly after by command of the pope himself, some say at the solicitation of the King of Spain. Though no formal approbation has ever been given to the work, Pope Alexander VIII. authorized its circulation, and Clement IX. forbade its being placed on the Index. Its discussion, however, has delayed the process for the canonization of its author, though no one ever doubted her sincerity, her earnest convictions, and the saintliness of her character. In it she displays a mind thoroughly imbued with the religious spirit, and, though without education, strictly speaking, shows a knowledge of Scripture, a depth of theological learning, and a correctness of scholastic terms that are truly surprising. The style is dignified, and yet easy; and some of her descriptions have a certain grandeur, as in the Passion, where Satan and his angels are represented as following Christ to Mount Calvary bound in chains, forced to become witnesses of his sufferings and death, and smitten to the ground at the moment of the Consummatum est. This is volume three out of four.

The Mystical City of God Vol. 3: The Transfixion

The Mystical City of God Vol. 3: The Transfixion

Format: Paperback.

The Mystical City of God Vol. 3: The Transfixion.

ISBN: 9783849672928.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

The monastic life of Mary of Agreda (from wikipedia.com)

When Mary of Jesus was twelve, she made the decision to enter a monastery, having decided upon that of the Discalced Carmelite nuns in Tarazona. As her parents prepared to accompany her there, Catalina de Arana had a vision that she was to turn the family home into a monastery in which both she and her daughters were to commit their lives as nuns. While the young María was agreeable to this arrangement, her father refused to go along with it. In this he was supported by his brother, Medel, as well as by their neighbors, who all considered this arrangement a violation of their marriage vows. His resistance lasted for three years, until in 1618, then considered an older man in his early fifties, he (and later his brother) entered the Franciscan Friary of San Antonio in Nalda as a lay brother. Her brothers, who had already become friars, continued their studies toward the Catholic priesthood in Burgos. Mary of Jesus later recalled that this period had been one of severe trial for her spiritual life and had led to a certain sense of vanity.

Catalina and her daughters then converted their family home into the Monastery of the Immaculate Conception, to be a part of the Order of the Immaculate Conception. The choice of this Order was a part of the huge devotion to the Immaculate Conception of Mary which marked Spanish spirituality of that period. They began this endeavor as part of the Discalced—or reformed—branch of the Order. Unfortunately, there were no monasteries of this branch in the region, so three nuns of the original Calced branch were brought from their monastery in Burgos to serve as the abbess of the community and to train them in the life of the Order. Mary of Jesus later judged that this had given a bad start to the enterprise, as these nuns were to teach them a way of life they had neither known nor practiced. Mary of Jesus was 16 when she and her mother and sister took the religious habit of the Order and she was given the religious name by which she is now known. She felt, though, that she had to make up for her years of laxity during the period of contention between her parents and the delay in the foundation of the monastery resulting from it.

As other women soon joined the community, the monastery was rebuilt (and completed in 1633), although when reconstruction began the community’s coffers contained 24 reales(approximately 2.5 Spanish dollars at the time), supplemented by a donation of 100 reales from devotees and many other gifts and hours of voluntary labor. Once she had made her religious profession in 1620, Mary of Jesus began to experience a long period of illness and temptations. After her mother’s death, Mary of Jesus, then aged 25, was appointed the Superior locum tenens, after which her fellow nuns elected her as their abbess. Though rules required the abbess to be changed every three years, Mary remained effectively in charge of the monastery until her death, except for a three-year sabbatical in her fifties.

Throughout her life, Mary of Jesus was inclined to the „internal prayer“ or „quiet prayer“. Like her countrywoman Teresa of Avila a generation earlier, these prayerful experiences led to religious ecstasies, including reported accounts of levitation. As this form of prayer was practiced frequently among women, the Inquisition kept a watchful eye on those who advocated the practice.

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter Mariology, The Sacred Books (English) | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

The Mystical City of God Vol. 2: The Incarnation

The Mystical City of God Vol. 2: The Incarnation – Mary of Agreda

At thirty-five Mary Agreda began her Mystical City of God, which was the fruit of her daily meditations and rapt states of contemplation. When this work appeared it was hailed with almost unanimous applause by the bishops of Spain. The Spanish Inquisition, always rigid in its censorship, regarded it as almost, if not wholly, of divine revelation. The Sorbonne at Paris held thirty-two stances, in which five hundred and fifty doctors discussed its merits, but finally condemned it with true national hostility to Spain. At Rome it was indeed placed on the Index, but was removed shortly after by command of the pope himself, some say at the solicitation of the King of Spain. Though no formal approbation has ever been given to the work, Pope Alexander VIII. authorized its circulation, and Clement IX. forbade its being placed on the Index. Its discussion, however, has delayed the process for the canonization of its author, though no one ever doubted her sincerity, her earnest convictions, and the saintliness of her character. In it she displays a mind thoroughly imbued with the religious spirit, and, though without education, strictly speaking, shows a knowledge of Scripture, a depth of theological learning, and a correctness of scholastic terms that are truly surprising. The style is dignified, and yet easy; and some of her descriptions have a certain grandeur, as in the Passion, where Satan and his angels are represented as following Christ to Mount Calvary bound in chains, forced to become witnesses of his sufferings and death, and smitten to the ground at the moment of the Consummatum est. This is volume two out of four.

The Mystical City of God Vol. 2: The Incarnation

The Mystical City of God Vol. 2: The Incarnation

Format: Paperback.

The Mystical City of God Vol. 2: The Incarnation.

ISBN: 9783849672911.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

The monastic life of Mary of Agreda (from wikipedia.com)

When Mary of Jesus was twelve, she made the decision to enter a monastery, having decided upon that of the Discalced Carmelite nuns in Tarazona. As her parents prepared to accompany her there, Catalina de Arana had a vision that she was to turn the family home into a monastery in which both she and her daughters were to commit their lives as nuns. While the young María was agreeable to this arrangement, her father refused to go along with it. In this he was supported by his brother, Medel, as well as by their neighbors, who all considered this arrangement a violation of their marriage vows. His resistance lasted for three years, until in 1618, then considered an older man in his early fifties, he (and later his brother) entered the Franciscan Friary of San Antonio in Nalda as a lay brother. Her brothers, who had already become friars, continued their studies toward the Catholic priesthood in Burgos. Mary of Jesus later recalled that this period had been one of severe trial for her spiritual life and had led to a certain sense of vanity.

Catalina and her daughters then converted their family home into the Monastery of the Immaculate Conception, to be a part of the Order of the Immaculate Conception. The choice of this Order was a part of the huge devotion to the Immaculate Conception of Mary which marked Spanish spirituality of that period. They began this endeavor as part of the Discalced—or reformed—branch of the Order. Unfortunately, there were no monasteries of this branch in the region, so three nuns of the original Calced branch were brought from their monastery in Burgos to serve as the abbess of the community and to train them in the life of the Order. Mary of Jesus later judged that this had given a bad start to the enterprise, as these nuns were to teach them a way of life they had neither known nor practiced. Mary of Jesus was 16 when she and her mother and sister took the religious habit of the Order and she was given the religious name by which she is now known. She felt, though, that she had to make up for her years of laxity during the period of contention between her parents and the delay in the foundation of the monastery resulting from it.

As other women soon joined the community, the monastery was rebuilt (and completed in 1633), although when reconstruction began the community’s coffers contained 24 reales(approximately 2.5 Spanish dollars at the time), supplemented by a donation of 100 reales from devotees and many other gifts and hours of voluntary labor. Once she had made her religious profession in 1620, Mary of Jesus began to experience a long period of illness and temptations. After her mother’s death, Mary of Jesus, then aged 25, was appointed the Superior locum tenens, after which her fellow nuns elected her as their abbess. Though rules required the abbess to be changed every three years, Mary remained effectively in charge of the monastery until her death, except for a three-year sabbatical in her fifties.

Throughout her life, Mary of Jesus was inclined to the „internal prayer“ or „quiet prayer“. Like her countrywoman Teresa of Avila a generation earlier, these prayerful experiences led to religious ecstasies, including reported accounts of levitation. As this form of prayer was practiced frequently among women, the Inquisition kept a watchful eye on those who advocated the practice.

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter Mariology, The Sacred Books (English) | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

The Mystical City of God Vol. 1: The Conception

The Mystical City of God Vol. 1: The Conception – Mary of Agreda

At thirty-five Mary Agreda began her Mystical City of God, which was the fruit of her daily meditations and rapt states of contemplation. When this work appeared it was hailed with almost unanimous applause by the bishops of Spain. The Spanish Inquisition, always rigid in its censorship, regarded it as almost, if not wholly, of divine revelation. The Sorbonne at Paris held thirty-two stances, in which five hundred and fifty doctors discussed its merits, but finally condemned it with true national hostility to Spain. At Rome it was indeed placed on the Index, but was removed shortly after by command of the pope himself, some say at the solicitation of the King of Spain. Though no formal approbation has ever been given to the work, Pope Alexander VIII. authorized its circulation, and Clement IX. forbade its being placed on the Index. Its discussion, however, has delayed the process for the canonization of its author, though no one ever doubted her sincerity, her earnest convictions, and the saintliness of her character. In it she displays a mind thoroughly imbued with the religious spirit, and, though without education, strictly speaking, shows a knowledge of Scripture, a depth of theological learning, and a correctness of scholastic terms that are truly surprising. The style is dignified, and yet easy; and some of her descriptions have a certain grandeur, as in the Passion, where Satan and his angels are represented as following Christ to Mount Calvary bound in chains, forced to become witnesses of his sufferings and death, and smitten to the ground at the moment of the Consummatum est. This is volume one out of four.

The Mystical City of God Vol. 1: The Conception

The Mystical City of God Vol. 1: The Conception

Format: Paperback.

The Mystical City of God Vol. 1: The Conception.

ISBN: 9783849673376.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

The monastic life of Mary of Agreda (from wikipedia.com)

When Mary of Jesus was twelve, she made the decision to enter a monastery, having decided upon that of the Discalced Carmelite nuns in Tarazona. As her parents prepared to accompany her there, Catalina de Arana had a vision that she was to turn the family home into a monastery in which both she and her daughters were to commit their lives as nuns. While the young María was agreeable to this arrangement, her father refused to go along with it. In this he was supported by his brother, Medel, as well as by their neighbors, who all considered this arrangement a violation of their marriage vows. His resistance lasted for three years, until in 1618, then considered an older man in his early fifties, he (and later his brother) entered the Franciscan Friary of San Antonio in Nalda as a lay brother. Her brothers, who had already become friars, continued their studies toward the Catholic priesthood in Burgos. Mary of Jesus later recalled that this period had been one of severe trial for her spiritual life and had led to a certain sense of vanity.

Catalina and her daughters then converted their family home into the Monastery of the Immaculate Conception, to be a part of the Order of the Immaculate Conception. The choice of this Order was a part of the huge devotion to the Immaculate Conception of Mary which marked Spanish spirituality of that period. They began this endeavor as part of the Discalced—or reformed—branch of the Order. Unfortunately, there were no monasteries of this branch in the region, so three nuns of the original Calced branch were brought from their monastery in Burgos to serve as the abbess of the community and to train them in the life of the Order. Mary of Jesus later judged that this had given a bad start to the enterprise, as these nuns were to teach them a way of life they had neither known nor practiced. Mary of Jesus was 16 when she and her mother and sister took the religious habit of the Order and she was given the religious name by which she is now known. She felt, though, that she had to make up for her years of laxity during the period of contention between her parents and the delay in the foundation of the monastery resulting from it.

As other women soon joined the community, the monastery was rebuilt (and completed in 1633), although when reconstruction began the community’s coffers contained 24 reales(approximately 2.5 Spanish dollars at the time), supplemented by a donation of 100 reales from devotees and many other gifts and hours of voluntary labor. Once she had made her religious profession in 1620, Mary of Jesus began to experience a long period of illness and temptations. After her mother’s death, Mary of Jesus, then aged 25, was appointed the Superior locum tenens, after which her fellow nuns elected her as their abbess. Though rules required the abbess to be changed every three years, Mary remained effectively in charge of the monastery until her death, except for a three-year sabbatical in her fifties.

Throughout her life, Mary of Jesus was inclined to the „internal prayer“ or „quiet prayer“. Like her countrywoman Teresa of Avila a generation earlier, these prayerful experiences led to religious ecstasies, including reported accounts of levitation. As this form of prayer was practiced frequently among women, the Inquisition kept a watchful eye on those who advocated the practice.

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter Mariology, The Sacred Books (English) | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

Arcana Coelestia Volume 1

Arcana Coelestia Volume 1 – Emanuel Swedenborg

This is an exposition of the internal or spiritual sense of the books of Genesis and Exodus, according to the law of correspondences. It unfolds the spiritual significance of the creation; of the stories of Adam and Eve, and of the deluge; of the lives of the patriarchs; of the captivity of the chosen people in Egypt and of their deliverance therefrom, and of their subsequent history; of the ritual of the Jewish religion, its sacrifices and observances:—and in general, traces the foreshadowing through both books of the incarnation and glorification of the Lord Jesus Christ. Many passages from other parts of the Word are also fully explained. Relations of things heard and seen in the spiritual world are interspersed, explaining the process of dying, and of man’s resuscitation and conscious entrance into the interior life; the nature of the soul; of heaven and heavenly joy;and of hell, its nature and its miseries. It also treats of the Grand Man, or the whole angelic heaven, and the correspondence of the societies therein with the different organs and senses of the body; the origin and correspondence of diseases; the spirits and inhabitants of the various planets, and of other earths in the starry heavens. All of which are related to a true understanding of the Divine Word. This is book #1 out of 12 and covers Genesis 1 – 9.

Arcana Coelestia, Volume 1

Arcana Coelestia Volume 1

Format: Paperback.

Arcana Coelestia Volume 1.

ISBN: 9783849673369.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

Basics on the Arcana Coelestia (from wikipedia.com)

The Arcana Cœlestia, quae in Scriptura Sacra seu Verbo Domini sunt, detecta, usually abbreviated as Arcana Cœlestia (Heavenly Mysteries or Secrets of Heaven) or under its Latin variant, Arcana Cælestia, is the first and largest work published by Emanuel Swedenborg in his theological period. It was written and published in Neo-Latin, in eight volumes, one volume per year, from 1749 to 1756.

It consists of an exposition of the spiritual sense of the books of Genesis and Exodus, according to the doctrine of correspondence (theology), and demonstrated by many supporting quotations from the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament. While not denying the historicity of the stories of the Patriarchs (Bible) and The Exodus from Egypt, it explains them as describing symbolically the process of spiritual growth and struggles in each individual person.

What follows is the opening paragraph of Arcana Coelestia Volume 1, and therefore the opening statement of the whole corpus of theological work that Swedenborg claimed was revealed to him.

From the mere letter of the Word of the Old Testament no one would ever discern the fact that this part of the Word contains deep secrets of heaven, and that everything within it both in general and in particular bears reference to the Lord, to His heaven, to the church, to religious belief, and to all things connected therewith; for from the letter or sense of the letter all that anyone can see is that ̶ to speak generally ̶ everything therein has reference merely to the external rites and ordinances of the Jewish Church. Yet the truth is that everywhere in that Word there are internal things which never appear at all in the external things except a very few which the Lord revealed and explained to the Apostles; such as that the sacrifices signify the Lord; that the land of Canaan and Jerusalem signify heaven ̶ on which account they are called the Heavenly Canaan and Jerusalem ̶ and that Paradise has a similar signification. (Arcana Cœlestia #1)

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter Mysticism, Spirituality, The Sacred Books (English) | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

Campaigns Of The Civil War Vol. 3 – The Peninsula

Campaigns Of The Civil War Vol. 3 – The Peninsula – Alexander Stewart Webb.

The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement against the Confederate States Army in Northern Virginia, intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of the aggressive General Robert E. Lee turned the subsequent Seven Days Battles into a humiliating Union defeat.

Campaigns Of The Civil War Vol. 3 - The Peninsula

Campaigns Of The Civil War Vol. 3 – The Peninsula

Format: Paperback.

Campaigns Of The Civil War Vol. 3 – The Peninsula.

ISBN: 9783849673352.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

What you need to know about the Civil War (from Wikipedia):

The American Civil War was a civil war that was fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. As a result of the long-standing controversy over slavery, war broke out in April 1861, when Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, shortly after U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated. The nationalists of the Union proclaimed loyalty to the U.S. Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States, who advocated for states‘ rights to expand slavery.

Among the 34 U.S. states in February 1861, seven Southern slave states individually declared their secession from the U.S. to form the Confederate States of America, or the South. The Confederacy grew to include eleven slave states. The Confederacy was never diplomatically recognized by the United States government, nor was it recognized by any foreign country (although the United Kingdom and France granted it belligerent status). The states that remained loyal to the U.S. (including the border states where slavery was legal) were known as the Union or the North.

The Union and Confederacy quickly raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought mostly in the South over four years. The Union finally won the war when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House, followed by a series of surrenders by Confederate generals throughout the southern states. Four years of intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, a higher number than the number of U.S. military deaths in all other wars combined (at least until approximately the Vietnam War). Much of the South’s infrastructure was destroyed, especially the transportation systems, railroads, mills and houses. The Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, and 4 million slaves were freed. The Reconstruction Era (1863–1877) overlapped and followed the war, with the process of restoring national unity, strengthening the national government, and granting civil rights to freed slaves throughout the country. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history.

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter American History (English), Civil War | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

Omoo: Adventures in the South Seas

Omoo: Adventures in the South Seas – Herman Melville

Omoo:is Melville’s sequel to Typee, and, as such, is also considered autobiographical. After leaving Nuku Hiva, the main character ships aboard a whaling vessel which makes its way to Tahiti, after which there is a mutiny and the majority of the crew are imprisoned on Tahiti. The book follows the actions of the narrator as he explores Tahiti and remarks on their customs and way of life.

Omoo: Adventures in the South Seas

Omoo: Adventures in the South Seas

Format: Paperback

Omoo: Adventures in the South Seas.

ISBN: 9783849673345.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

Some background on Omoo (from Wikipedia):

In the Preface to Omoo, Melville claimed to have written „from simple recollection“ strengthened by his retelling the story many times before family and friends. Yet a scholar working in the late 1930s discovered that Melville had not simply relied on his memory and went on to reveal a wealth of sources. Later, Melville scholar Harrison Hayford made a detailed study of these sources and, in the introduction to a 1969 edition of Omoo, summed up the author’s practice: „He had altered facts and dates, elaborated events, assimilated foreign materials, invented episodes, and dramatized the printed experiences of others as his own. He had not plagiarized, merely, for he had always rewritten and nearly always improved the passages he appropriated.“ Hayford showed that this was a repetition of a process previously used in Typee, „first writing out the narrative based on his recollections and invention, then using source books to pad out the chapters he had already written and to supply the stuff of new chapters that he inserted at various points in the manuscript.“

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter Classics of Fiction (English), Melville, Herman | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

The Life Of George Washington Volume 4

The Life Of George Washington Volume 4 – Washington Irving

„The Life Of George Washington“ is a monumental work on the life of one of the most famous American presidents. Originally published in five volumes between 1853 and 1859, it is a treasure chest of information on Washington and the Civil War. This work is presumeably the most intimate and fascinating biography of a man who worked his way from an Army commander to the first President of the United States. This is volume four out of five.

The Life Of George Washington Volume 4

The Life Of George Washington Volume 4

Format: Paperback.

The Life Of George Washington Volume 4.

ISBN: 9783849673338.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

Biography of George Washington (from Wikipedia):

George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was an American statesman and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and later presided over the 1787 convention that drafted the United States Constitution. He is popularly considered the driving force behind the nation’s establishment and came to be known as the „father of the country,“ both during his lifetime and to this day.

Washington was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited. In his youth, he became a senior officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French and Indian War. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution. In that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles (Trenton and Princeton), retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause. His strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. Historians laud Washington for the selection and supervision of his generals, preservation and command of the army, coordination with the Congress, state governors, and their militia, and attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was sometimes outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies, yet was always able to avoid significant defeats which would have resulted in the surrender of his army and the loss of the American Revolution.

After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his commitment to American republicanism. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which devised a new form of federal government for the United States. Washington was widely admired for his strong leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. Following his election as president in 1789, he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation. He supported Alexander Hamilton’s programs to satisfy all debts, federal and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank.

In avoiding war with Great Britain, he guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795, despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the French Revolutionary Wars, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion, and won wide acceptance amongst Americans. Washington’s incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the cabinet system, the inaugural address, and the title Mr. President. His retirement from office after two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 and was later made law by the 22nd Amendment. He remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Party, although he largely supported its policies. Washington’s Farewell Address was an influential primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars.

He retired from the presidency in 1797, returning to his home and plantation at Mount Vernon. Upon his death, Washington was eulogized as „first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen“ by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He was revered in life and in death; scholarly and public polling consistently ranks him among the top three presidents in American history. He has been depicted and remembered in monuments, public works, currency, and other dedications to the present day.

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter Biographies (English), Classics of Fiction (English), Irving, Washington, The Presidents | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

The Life Of George Washington Volume 3

The Life Of George Washington Volume 3 – Washington Irving

„The Life Of George Washington“ is a monumental work on the life of one of the most famous American presidents. Originally published in five volumes between 1853 and 1859, it is a treasure chest of information on Washington and the Civil War. This work is presumeably the most intimate and fascinating biography of a man who worked his way from an Army commander to the first President of the United States. This is volume three out of five.

The Life Of George Washington Volume 3

The Life Of George Washington Volume 3

Format: Paperback.

The Life Of George Washington Volume 3.

ISBN: 9783849673321.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

Biography of George Washington (from Wikipedia):

George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was an American statesman and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and later presided over the 1787 convention that drafted the United States Constitution. He is popularly considered the driving force behind the nation’s establishment and came to be known as the „father of the country,“ both during his lifetime and to this day.

Washington was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited. In his youth, he became a senior officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French and Indian War. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution. In that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles (Trenton and Princeton), retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause. His strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. Historians laud Washington for the selection and supervision of his generals, preservation and command of the army, coordination with the Congress, state governors, and their militia, and attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was sometimes outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies, yet was always able to avoid significant defeats which would have resulted in the surrender of his army and the loss of the American Revolution.

After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his commitment to American republicanism. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which devised a new form of federal government for the United States. Washington was widely admired for his strong leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. Following his election as president in 1789, he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation. He supported Alexander Hamilton’s programs to satisfy all debts, federal and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank.

In avoiding war with Great Britain, he guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795, despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the French Revolutionary Wars, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion, and won wide acceptance amongst Americans. Washington’s incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the cabinet system, the inaugural address, and the title Mr. President. His retirement from office after two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 and was later made law by the 22nd Amendment. He remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Party, although he largely supported its policies. Washington’s Farewell Address was an influential primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars.

He retired from the presidency in 1797, returning to his home and plantation at Mount Vernon. Upon his death, Washington was eulogized as „first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen“ by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He was revered in life and in death; scholarly and public polling consistently ranks him among the top three presidents in American history. He has been depicted and remembered in monuments, public works, currency, and other dedications to the present day.

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter Biographies (English), Classics of Fiction (English), Irving, Washington, The Presidents | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

Legends Of The Gods

Legends Of The Gods – E. A. Wallis Budge

The object of this book is to supply information about the Religion, Magic, Language, Legends and History of the ancient Egyptians. It shows insight on legends like the death of Horus, Ra and Isis, the creational myths and much more.

Legends Of The Gods

Legends Of The Gods

Format: Paperback.

Legends Of The Gods.

ISBN: 9783849673314.

Available at amazon.com and other venues.

 

Budge’s literary career (from wikipedia.com)

Budge was also a prolific author, and he is especially remembered today for his works on ancient Egyptian religion and his hieroglyphic primers. Budge argued that the religion of Osiris had emerged from an indigenous African people:

„There is no doubt“, he said of Egyptian religions in Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection (1911), „that the beliefs examined herein are of indigenous origin, Nilotic or Sundani in the broadest signification of the word, and I have endeavoured to explain those which cannot be elucidated in any other way, by the evidence which is afforded by the Religions of the modern peoples who live on the great rivers of East, West, and Central Africa . . . Now, if we examine the Religions of modern African peoples, we find that the beliefs underlying them are almost identical with those Ancient Egyptian ones described above. As they are not derived from the Egyptians, it follows that they are the natural product of the religious mind of the natives of certain parts of Africa, which is the same in all periods.“
Budge’s contention that the religion of the Egyptians was derived from similar religions of the people of northeastern and central Africa was regarded as impossible by his colleagues. At the time, all but a few scholars followed Flinders Petrie in his theory that the culture of Ancient Egypt was derived from an invading Caucasoid „Dynastic Race,“ which had conquered Egypt in late prehistory and introduced the Pharaonic culture.

Budge’s works were widely read by the educated public and among those seeking comparative ethnological data, including James Frazer. He incorporated some of Budge’s ideas on Osiris into his ever-growing work on comparative religion, The Golden Bough.

Budge was also interested in the paranormal, and believed in spirits and hauntings. Budge had a number of friends in the Ghost Club (British Library, Manuscript Collections, Ghost Club Archives), a group in London committed to the study of alternative religions and the spirit world. He told his many friends stories of hauntings and other uncanny experiences. Many people in his day who were involved with the occult and spiritualism after losing their faith in Christianity were dedicated to Budge’s works, particularly his translation of the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Such writers as the poet William Butler Yeats and James Joyce studied and were influenced by this work of ancient religion. Budge’s works on Egyptian religion have remained consistently in print since they entered the public domain.

Budge was a member of the literary and open-minded Savile Club in London, proposed by his friend H. Rider Haggard in 1889, and accepted in 1891. He was a much sought-after dinner guest in London, his humorous stories and anecdotes being famous in his circle. He enjoyed the company of the well-born, many of whom he met when they brought to the British Museum the scarabs and statuettes they had purchased while on holiday in Egypt. Budge never lacked for an invitation to a country house in the summer or to a fashionable townhouse during the London season.

Though Budge’s books remain widely available, since his day both translation and dating accuracy have improved, leading to significant revisions. The common writing style of his era—a lack of clear distinction between opinion and incontrovertible fact—is no longer acceptable in scholarly works.

 

(The text of the last section was taken from a Wikipedia entry and is available under the the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)

 

Publisher’s Note: This book is printed and distributed by Createspace a DBA of On-Demand Publishing LLC and is typically not available anywhere else than in stores owned and operated by Amazon or Createspace.

Veröffentlicht unter Mysticism, The Sacred Books (English) | Hinterlasse einen Kommentar